Whatever means had been in practice in making the past of Devabhumi Bharat glorious – Ashvamedha is the best among them. It is the gains and good results of Ashvamedha that gave the habitants of this land the prestige of Jagadguru in the field of knowledge of ultimate reality and Cakravarti (universal monarch) in the field of science. A western historian, Professor A.L. Basham, who is deeply and seriously dedicated to the study and investigation of divine culture
writes, in his book titled "The wonder that was India", that if one surveys the different parts of the world and tries to find where the habitants considered their land to be sacred and an object of reverence - it will be found that that country is India. According to the research report titled "Vedic India", the Ashvamedha was in vogue in the form of Vedic method of worshipping the nation. This was given the status of Anushthana which was performed together by the rulers, the philosophers and the common people.
A few historians consider the Ashvamedha as a method of political unification. Historian A.C. Brownskey in his book "A history of historical writing" considers this assumption as shallow-visioned. According to him, the efforts of political unification have been done in the present age also and are still being done; but that soul-satisfaction with the results of such efforts was never felt as was felt by the habitants of Vedic India in Ashvamedha Anushthana. What else were the conquest expeditions of Greece and Rome except the race for imperial unification? The minds of Sikandar and Sellucus, who were defeated by the great Chanakya, were filled with such colorful imaginations. Hitler knitted his warp and weft in the guise of his promise; "I will unite the world". In the third and fourth decades of twentieth century, Stalin tried to demonstrate the same streak, though on a smaller scale, in Russia using the slogan of communism of Marx. But all these efforts ultimately remained as far from the spirit of Ashvamedha as the earth is from the sky.
According to historian Brownskey, the Ashvamedha Anushthanas were not political conquest expeditions; rather they were cultural unification expeditions. According to historian A. Barth, the biggest proof of their cultural form is that these yajnas were led by a Purohit. According to Barth, the ruler used to be only the organizer of these yajnas, whereas the role of Purohit was that of a director. The aim of these great yajnas was to awaken the faith of the people towards Rashtra Devata
and towards the universal values of life (Dharma) and to educate the masses about the methods of living in accordance with these basic values (Dharma). These efforts made for the cultural unity, used to make the Rashtra (the nation) politically, geographically and emotionally strong, able and disciplined. Accepting these facts, Rashtra and Ashvamedha have been considered identical in Shatapatha Brahmana–